Diamond (from the ancient greek: ἀδάμας adámas, meaning "unbreakable", "proper", or "unalterable") is one of the best-known and most sought-after gemstones.
Diamonds have been known to mankind and used as decorative items since ancient times; some of the earliest references can be traced to hardness of diamond and its high dispersion of light—giving the diamond its characteristic "fire"—make it useful for industrial applications and desirable as jewelry.Diamonds are such a highly traded commodity that multiple organizations have been created for grading and certifying them based on the "four cs", which are color, cut, clarity, and carat.
Other characteristics, such as presence or lack of fluorescence, also affect the desirability and thus the value of a diamond used for most famous use of the diamond in jewelry is in engagement rings.Through an advertising campaign beginning in the 1930s and continuing into the mid-20th century, de beers made diamonds into a key part of the betrothal process and a coveted symbol of status.
The diamond's high value has been the driving force behind dictators and revolutionary entities, especially in africa, using slave and child labor to mine blood diamonds to fund conflicts.Though popularly believed to derive its value from its rarity, gem-quality diamonds are quite common compared to rare gemstones such as alexandrite, and annual global rough diamond production is estimated to be about 130 million carats (26 tonnes; 29 short tons). 1] the value of diamonds is attributed largely to the industry's tight control over this supply.
Its deep blue coloration is caused by trace amounts of boron in the to the discovery of diamonds in brazil in the 1700s, india was the only place where diamonds were mined.
3] buddhist works dating from the 4th century bc describe the diamond as a well-known and precious stone but don't mention the details of diamond cutting.
4] another indian description written in the beginning of the 3rd century describes strength, regularity, brilliance, ability to scratch metals, and good refractive properties as the desirable qualities of a diamond. In his work naturalis historia, the roman writer pliny the elder noted diamond's ornamental uses, as well as its usefulness to engravers because of its hardness. It is however highly doubtful that pliny actually meant diamonds and it is assumed that in fact several different minerals such as corundum, spinel, or even a mixture with magnetite were all referred to by the word "adamas". Eventually spread throughout the world, even though india had remained the only major source of the gemstone until the discovery of diamonds in brazil in 1725.
3] a chinese work from the 3rd century bc mentions: "foreigners wear it [diamond] in the belief that it can ward off evil influences".
5] the chinese, who did not find diamonds in their country, initially did not use diamond as a jewel but used it as a "jade cutting knife".2] diamonds were also discovered in 700 in borneo, and were used by the traders of southeast asia.
Modern era of diamond mining began in the 1860s in kimberley, south africa with the opening of the first large-scale diamond mine.7] the first diamond there was found in 1866 on the banks of the orange river and became known as the eureka ood rawstone's "red cap party" of prospectors on colesberg 1869, an even larger 83.
Oz) diamond was found on the slopes of colesberg kopje on the farm vooruitzigt belonging to the de beers brothers.
1871 to 1914, 50,000 miners dug the big hole with picks and shovels, yielding 2,722 kg (6,001 lb) of diamonds, and by 1873 kimberley was the second largest town in south africa, having an approximate population of 40,000.
In 1888, the two companies merged to form de beers consolidated mines, which once had a monopoly over the world's diamond market. Annual global rough diamond production is estimated to be about 130 million carats (26 tonnes; 29 short tons), of which 92% is cut and polished in india, mostly in the city of surat.
19] some 85% of the world's rough diamonds, 50% of cut diamonds, and 40% of industrial diamonds are traded in antwerp, belgium—the diamond center of the world.20] the city of antwerp also hosts the antwerpsche diamantkring, created in 1929 to become the first and biggest diamond bourse dedicated to rough diamonds.
21] antwerp's association with diamonds began in the late 15th century when a new technique to polish and shape the gems evolved in this city.
More than 12,000 expert cutters and polishers are at work in the diamond district, at 380 workshops, serving 1,500 firms and 3,500 brokers and the 21st century, the technology to produce perfect diamonds synthetically was developed.
It is too early to assess the effect of future wide availability of gem-quality synthetic diamonds on the diamond market, although the traditional diamond industry has taken steps to try to create a distinction between diamonds dug from the ground and diamonds made in a factory, in part by downplaying the fact that diamonds from both sources are actually visually identical.