Paper: format of citations and you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Some may come from electronic sources such as the world wide web, melvyl and harvest databases available through the uc davis library, cd references and the like, and some may come from interviews. This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for this class, we will be using the documentation style of the american psychological association (apa, 2001) modified with italics substituted for underlining. The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section purpose of the term paper in ecs 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.
Research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form.
Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course.
The required format meets the accepted practices cited in li and crane (1993), a reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources.
You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles.You will therefore be expected to use the format set out citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions.
If there are two references by the same author(s) for the same year, use letters after the year: (walters, 1993b).
You include the author's name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "austin (1996) includes valuable references to ....
All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "references".
The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or (if no author is listed) the organization or title.If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first.
Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new general format for the author, title, and date in your reference list is as follows:Author.For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or daily periodical.
For example, an article's title would look like:The abc's of mumps: an introduction for novice and intermediate following apply to citing the name and identifying information for journals, magazines, newspapers, and periodicals in citing the name of a journal, magazine or newspaper, write the name in italics, with all words capitalized except for articles, prepositions and the volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in parentheses (if there is an issue number), and the page number(s).
For example:If you choose to include any personal interviews, reference them with the person's name, their professional title and employer, and the date, time, and place of the interview.
It is important, however, to acknowledge the sources of these documents, even though you may never have seen "hard copy" (printed versions) of the file(s) you wish to cite.
This section describes how you are to cite references that you have obtained from electronic basic form of your reference will be similar to printed references, but you will need to add some important additional information: the type of medium used, and the material's general, if you wish to cite an electronic file, you should include either the term "[online]" or the term "[cdrom]" (enclosed in square brackets) before the closing period terminating the title of the work cited.
Computer database in melvyl): identify access each case, you should give enough information to let the reader know how to access the information electronically.
Generally, giving the site (internet-style server name) on which the information resides, the name of the file, and the complete path (list of directories) showing how to get to it is example:[online].
Available: http://:1024/ of the examples given above may be summarized by citing a few references in the form we would like you to use.A complete listing of s for published materials may be found in the body (intro and discussion) of the hout the body of your paper ( intro and discussion), whenever you refer to outside information, you must cite the sources from which you ation.
Provide a reference to as soon as possible after giving the ls, but generally, in biological journals, the most of citations are shown in the following examples (in red):Found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a phase three of courtship behavior (gumwad 1952:209; bugjuice 1970). Bugjuice literature cited section will contain the complete reference,A reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as.
1970) is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information,Than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed.A paper found in another article, do so as follows:Of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Copy of this reference should be available in the ladd a copy is available in the biology was not gained from the gumwad and bugjuice publications,But rather in a personal conversation with or letter from on the subject, dr.However,The source is usually thanked in your acknowledgments for not use footnotes: footnoting, although commonly done in other literary writing, is only rarely done in papers. Take the information and put it into your ; avoid paraphrasing since this can potentially complete citations used in the literature te citations for each of the published sources cited paper. The format for entries in the literature cited s for books and for journal papers because different information must be provided. One paper having the same order of authors' names,The papers should be listed in chronological on in the same order as in the r.