Of your introduction, and much of your discussion, involve building upon the research of others, placing your research project in the context of previous findings in the is perfectly acceptable to quote the work of others and, in fact, it is essential that you do onally, you will use direct quotes from another source, but most of the time you will be paraphrasing the work.You will need to create a bibliography or reference list of all of the sources that you use, but you will also need to indicate within the text where your information came ncing is an essential part of writing any research paper, so err on the side of knowledge does not need to be referenced, and you can assume that any reader is fairly knowledgeable about the example, a psychologist will be aware of pavlovian conditioning, so you do not need to reference that if it from your own head.
A biochemist will be aware of how ethanol is are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of mla and apa with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your american psychological association standard (apa-standard) is used in most social and psychological papers, and variations of the author/date style are used by many scientific this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing.
Will allow any readers to find your work in the reference list and check the original source for themselves. There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic the author has written more than one paper in the same year, then you can use an alphabetical appendix:Some departments prefer it if you also use page numbers, if possible. For example,The other difficulty is when there is no author mentioned, and the source was written by an organization.
The same is true of many electronic sources, although be careful that any non-attributed source is mla style in text citation has two variations, the author/page number, although the modern trend is for author/year/page number, such there are more than two authors listed, then the usual standard is to mention both (sargeant & mcevoy, 2008).
Makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research.Few standards, such as chicago style and the council of biology editors (bce) use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography:Although most word processors provide an automatic system of doing this, the added complexity, and the way that it makes the paper unwieldy for the reader, means that it is falling out of is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism, but there are a few times that citation is not l knowledge, such as 'crick and watson discovered the structure of dna,' will not need knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal..
This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for this class, we will be using the documentation style of the american psychological association (apa, 2001) modified with italics substituted for underlining.
This format is very similar to that of the modern language association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences.
The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses (as above) and optionally include the page number(s) after the date.
The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section purpose of the term paper in ecs 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.
Research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form.
Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course.
The required format meets the accepted practices cited in li and crane (1993), a reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources.
You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles.
Put in parentheses the author(s) last names, the year, and optionally the page number(s) separated by one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma.Two to five authors, use their last names separated by commas and with an ampersand "&" before the very last name in the list, then the year separated by a comma.
If there are two references by the same author(s) for the same year, use letters after the year: (walters, 1993b).
You include the author's name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "austin (1996) includes valuable references to ....
All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "references".