At best, marketing research will increase the probability that the decisions which management has to take will help attain the organisation's marketing r objectives. Define the role of marketing research in decision making· outline the contents of a research brief· outline the contents of a research proposal, and· explain in detail each of the principal steps in research chapter begins by explaining the limitations of marketing research in so much that it serves to reduce rather than remove the risks attendant to decision making.
The discussion proceeds to an outline of the research brief which has to be drawn up for the guidance of the individual or group charged with executing the study.
At this point, the researcher has to respond to the brief with a research design.In this text an eight step research design is proposed and the reader will find a fairly thorough discussion of each of these steps within the role and limitations of marketing research. Marketing managers may seek advice from marketing research specialists, and indeed it is important that research reports should specify alternative courses of action and the probability of success, where possible, of these alternatives.
However, it is marketing managers who make the final marketing decision and not the researcher. The second observation, that marketing research does not guarantee success, is simply a recognition of the environment within which marketing takes place. In the fields of science and engineering researchers are often working with deterministic models of the world where y = f(x). In the social sciences, and this includes marketing and marketing research, the phenomenon under investigation rarely, if ever, lends itself to deterministic modelling. Consider the marketing problem of determining how much to spend on promotion in order to achieve a given market share.
Marketing researchers work with probabilistic models of the form:This reflects the fact that in order for a target market share to be reached some promotion (amount unknown) is necessary but will not be sufficient, on its own, to achieve the target.
It is for these reasons that marketing researchers cannot guarantee that decisions based on their information will always prove 'successful'.Rather the best that a competent researcher and a well designed study will be able to offer is a reduction in the amount of uncertainty surrounding the decision. Definition of marketing and tull1 have defined marketing research as follows:"marketing research is the systematic and objective search for, and analysis of, information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing. This means that a detailed and carefully designed research plan is developed in which each stage of the research is specified.
Such a research plan is only considered adequate if it specifies: the research problem in concise and precise terms, the information necessary to address the problem, the methods to be employed in gathering the information and the analytical techniques to be used to interpret ining objectivity in marketing research is essential if marketing management is to have sufficient confidence in its results to be prepared to take risky decisions based upon those results.Intuitively a successful product would be predicted, launched with hardly any need for marketing research when the new mill had such obvious advantages over existing products.
He/she must also interpret the data in terms of what the it means to the organisation which commissioned the research.
The process of convening data into information is achieved through gh the need for precision and thoroughness in marketing research has been stressed here, it is to be remembered that, in practice, there is a perpetual conflict between the demands of expediency and the search for truth.
Therefore management often seeks answers through marketing research in the shortest time possible and, moreover, at minimum cost.On such occasions its methods tend to be less theoretically rigorous and its analysis more ing research can be concerned with any of a variety of aspects of the market: the product, sales, buyer behaviour, promotion, distribution, pricing, packaging, etc.
The question remains as to how the researcher decides where to focus the study, and to what depth each issue should be investigated.
The research design is a set of guidelines given to the researcher by the person(s) who have commissioned the research and/or the individual(s) who are to make use of the results in their decision making.
In particular, the research brief should include:· the purpose of the research· the objectives stated in a clear, concise, attainable, measurable and quantifiable way· a time horizon· a resource allocation, including the budget and facilities· a reporting of these components of the brief is explained in a little more detail in the section that purpose of the is not at all unusual for marketing managers to neglect to tell the researcher the precise purpose of the research.
To appreciate the difference consider the case of the marketing research agency which was contacted by the international coffee organisation (ico) and asked to carry out a survey of young people in the age group 15-24.